On March 29, the Iranian Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA) has published an article notifying readers that a group of Western academics and others signed an open letter calling to lift the sanctions on Iran. The letter included signatures of distinguished academics such as Noam Chomsky, Hamid Dabashi, Robert Crews, and John Packer, among others. The letter was drafted and coordinated by the Canadian Institute for Peace and Diplomacy.
Chomsky has a long history of anti-American and anti-Israel activities. He began as an anti-Vietnam War activist. In 1970, Chomsky, as a member of the Committee on New Alternatives in the Middle East, was instrumental in inviting Arie Bober, co-founder of the anti-Zionist group Matzpen, to a speaking tour on U.S. campuses. Bober presented a “socialist, non-Zionist Israeli viewpoint.” Chomsky’s group found Bober's views of “great importance in the Middle East.” Chomsky’s activities prompted the Israeli security to refuse him entry to Israel in May 2010, as reported by Al Jazeera TV.
Chomsky has visited Lebanon in 2006 and met with Hassan Nasrallah, the head of Hizbollah. In the meeting, Nasrallah asked Chomsky, "How can we have our point of view heard in the US?" Chomsky responded, "You need to reach the American public before American politicians. The public in the US is generally ahead of the politicians. Often public opinion conflicts with policies set in Washington. US politicians are usually elected by a minority of the population and represent two parties that are virtually indistinguishable on fundamental issues. If you can inform the public and get them to understand your position, they will put pressure on the politicians and hopefully prevent them from conducting their most destructive policies. Without internal public pressure, US policy is not likely to change significantly.” Chomsky's views of the U.S are negative; he believes that for the U.S, “secular nationalism in the Arab world was an enemy – it was working for the poor. This is the same reason why Hamas and Hezbollah are enemies: they are working for the poor. It doesn’t matter if they are Catholic or Muslim or anything else.”
The Institute for Peace and Diplomacy in Canada (IPD) which coordinated the letter urging to lift the sanctions, was established in January 2019. It is acting as a mouthpiece for Iran and promotes the Iranian agenda. While it is understandable that Iranian views should be heard, IPD also espouses anti-Israel propaganda.
IPD-associate, Reza Yeganehshakib, a Middle East expert at Saddleback College and Santa Monica College, wrote in November 2019 that the "Iranian threat" is an election campaign slogan for the Likud Party. That "Netanyahu has heavily relied on the 'Iranian Threat' as a fear mongering tactic... Netenyahu’s misuse of a foreign country, Iran, to shape the domestic politics inside the country. Iran has been an eternal part of the political narrative in Israel." According to Yeganehshakib, the anti-Iran campaign was designed to deflect attention "from crucial internal issues such as housing crisis, unemployment, and failure to make peace with the Palestinians." He postulates that Likud with Blue and White Alliance proves that the "Netenyahu’s Iran story will not work forever; and the Likud party, especially after Neteyahu’s departure, needs to redesign its strategy based on internal matters if it wants to remain in power," Yeganehshakib determined.
The purpose of the IPD in Canada is to influence Canadian foreign policy to cooperate with Iran in the name of progressive values. In February, Narbutt published "A Vision for a Progressive Canadian Foreign Policy.” He suggested that in order to advance peace, Canada should address nuclear non-proliferation in the Middle East, adding that "this goal should be at the forefront of any progressive foreign policy agenda." Since there have been efforts to declare the Middle East as a nuclear-weapons-free zone in the United Nations General Assembly, Canada voted against such plans pointing out to its relationship with Israel. A nuclear-weapons-free zone would "require Israel to abandon its longstanding tradition of ‘nuclear ambiguity’ and advance towards disarmament." Canada’s vote against the resolution "does not assist in building Canada’s image as a state that is honestly advancing an agenda of peacekeeping." Because "progressive Canadian foreign policy must pursue nuclear disarmament in the Middle East." However, Narbutt does not advise Canada to exercise pressure on Iran to advance towards disarmament.
IPD states that it wants to promote peace through diplomacy and dialogue, using "progressive and independent voices.” IPD is "building a network of experts, researchers and advocates who are ready to offer fresh and constructive ideas to resolve global challenges and conflicts through peaceful means. Through its publications, conferences, policy briefings, and recommendations the IPD will provide its perspective to policymakers, leaders in government, civil society and businesses.”
However, these lofty sentiments are a front for an Iranian propaganda outfit. The IPD team features Younes Zangiabadi, executive vice president and co-founder; Bijan Ahmadi, executive director and co-founder; Pouyan Kimiayjan, fellow associate; and Amadeus Narbutt, research associate. The IPD Address, coincidentally, is also a home to the Iranian Canadian Journal and Roqe Global Media Inc., its two directors are Jian Ghomeshi and Mehrdad Ariannejad.
For instance, Zangiabaldi published an article at the journal The Iranian titled "Why Canada’s Approach To Human Rights Has Been Ineffective In The Middle East.” He complained about the inaction of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, that "It is ironic that while Sweden and Norway are actively engaging and mediating between various stakeholders of complex regional conflicts, Canada is still deciding whether having diplomatic relations with Iran is necessary or not."
The Institute for Peace and Diplomacy in Canada is the latest in a long-term Iranian drive to spread its propaganda abroad. Under innocuously sounding names, such fronts approach Western scholars to bolster their legitimacy. These outfits should not fool anyone. Iran is a brutal regime that maltreats its population and foments terror and unrest in the Middle East through its infamous Revolutionary Guards and its proxies like Hezbollah.
US Academics and NGO leaders: End Iran Sanctions
New York, March 29, IRNA - A diverse group of US academics, researchers and NGO leaders have signed an open letter addressed to the leaders of the P4+1 countries (United Kingdom, France, Germany, China, and Russia) and the US lawmakers, calling on them to lift sanctions on Iran impeding Iranian campaign against coronavirus.
Through their letter, the academics and civil society activists have called for putting pressure on administration of the US President Donald Trump to remove unilateral sanctions against Iran.
Several distinguished academics including Noam Chomsky, Hamid Dabashi, Robert Crews, and John Packer have signed this letter which was drafted and coordinated by the Institute for Peace and Diplomacy.
Today, Iran like other world countries is fighting against the coronavirus; meanwhile, Iran is under the sanctions and cannot receive medical equipment.
The deadly coronavirus have killed over 2,500 Iranians since its outbreak in the country in late February.
If academics, researchers and NGO leaders would like to add their names to the letter, they have time before March 31, 2020.
The full text of the Open Letter is as follows:
This week, confirmed infections of the rapidly spreading COVID-19 surpassed 586,000 worldwide and global deaths rose past 26,800 as the outbreak continues to spread across the Middle East, Europe, and North America. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), worldwide deaths have tripled while global cases have more than doubled in the past week.
Iran is among the hardest-hit countries by the pandemic, with over 2,300 deaths and 32,000 cases of infections from the COVID-19. It is also the only country that is dealing with this level of cases while living under severe economic sanctions.
In 2018, the Trump administration imposed unilateral sanctions on Iran and implemented a policy of maximum pressure after withdrawing from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action in violation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231.
While on paper the US administration has provided humanitarian exemptions in its sanctions regime, reports from Iranian civil society, international aid organizations, and human rights groups including Human Rights Watch, show a different reality on the ground as US sanctions, including banking restrictions, have severely impacted Iranians’ access to medical equipment and essential medicine.
In recent weeks, the United Kingdom, Russia, China, and Pakistan have asked the US to ease sanctions on Iran during this unprecedented global pandemic. Meanwhile, the Trump administration has ignored these requests and instead have imposed even more sanctions on the country.
We believe that it is not only unjust to leave Iranian people alone in this global crisis, but is indeed a violation of Iranians’ inalienable rights to health and access to medical care. Furthermore, we believe that this pandemic is a shared global threat and it could only be defeated when all countries and people come together and support one another.
Therefore, we, the undersigned, call on all members of the United Nations Security Council to act in compliance with international law and UNSC resolution 2231 and to support Iranian people in their fight against this global pandemic.
We also urge the US lawmakers to pressure the Trump administration to immediately lift all sanctions that are impeding Iran’s response to the outbreak, including financial sanctions.
574 Signatures as of 9pm March 28, 2020
List of initial signatures* (in alphabetical order based on first name):
Abbas Edalat, Professor of Computer Science and Mathematics. Founder, Campaign Against Sanctions and Military Intervention in Iran
Adi Burton, Doctoral Candidate, University of British Columbia
Ali Gholizadeh, Public Policy researcher, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC)
Ali Naghieh, Dr./ Fellow, University College London
Alireza Doostdar, Assistant Professor, University of Chicago
Alison Happel-Parkins, Associate Professor, University of Memphis
Andreas Otto, Dr./Board Member EUIRANC – European Iranian Council
Arshin Adib-Moghaddam , Professor in Global Thought, SOAS, University of London
Assal Rad, Research Fellow, National Iranian American Council
Azadeh N Shahshahani, Legal & Advocacy Director, Project South; past president, National Lawyers Guild
Barbara Slavin, American journalist and foreign policy expert
Bijan Ahmadi, Executive Director, Institute for Peace & Diplomacy
Dani Magsumbol, Doctoral student in Politics, York University
Farhang Jahanpour, Retired professor and retired editor for Middle East and North Africa, BBC Monitoring
Farideh Farhi, Independent Scholar
Fayyaz Baqir, Visting professor, School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa
Hamid Dabashi, Professor, Columbia University
Hassan Allami, Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Ottawa
Hassan Ansari, Long-Term Member- Institute for Advanced Study. Princeton
Hasan Hafidh, Dr./ Senior Teaching Fellow, SOAS
Hoda Katebi , Writer and community organizer
Hossein Kamaly, Associate Professor, Hartford
Jaleh Mansoor, Associate Professor, University of British Columbia
Jamal Abdi, President, National Iranian American Council
Javad Shamsi, PhD student in Economics, London School of Economics and Political Science
John Packer, Professor, University of Ottawa
John Philpot, American Association of Jurists
Jon Rainwater, Executive Director , Peace Action
Kevin McDonough, Associate Professor, McGill University
Khodadad Rezakhani , Research Scholar, Princeton University
Lisa Weems, Professor, Miami University of Ohio
Mahdi Nikbakht, Fini Research Assistant, Aalborg University
Mahsa Rouhi, Research Fellow, IISS
Manjeet Ramgotra, Lecturer in Political Theory, SOAS University of London
Maryam Nabavi, Strategist, Equity & Inclusion, University of British Columbia
Maysam Behravesh, PhD candidate in political science, Lund University
Megan Altman, Professor, Cornell College
Mohammad Borghei, Strayer University (retired professor) social and political activist
Mohammad Keyhani, Associate Professor, University of Calgary
Mohsen Khaniki, Board Member, Iranian Canadian Congress
Morteza Hashemi, University of Edinburgh
Muhammad Sahimi, Professor, University of Southern California
Nader Hashemi, Director of Center for Middle East Studies, University of Denver
Nassim Noroozi, Visiting Lecturer, Concordia University
Neda Mohammadi, Imperial College London
Noam Chomsky, Institute Professor (emeritus), MIT. Laureate Professor, U. of Arizona
Omid Milani, Ph.D. Professor, University of Ottawa
Parham Pashaei ,PhD Candidate, University of British Columbia
Peyman Jafari, Dr./ Princeton University/University of Amsterdam
Pouya Alimagham, Lecturer in History, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Reem Abou-El-Fadl, Senior Lecturer, SOAS University of London
Rojeh Jahani, Vancouver Peace Council
Rose Wellman, Assistant Professor, University of Michigan-Dearborn
S. J. Adrienna Joyce, PhD candidate, McGill University
Sahar Maranlou, Dr./ Lecturer in Law. University of Essex
Saideh Khadir, Family physician and peace advocate
Sam Salehi Samiee, Painting Department, ArtEZ University of Arts and Design
Samuel D. Rocha, Associate Professor, University of British Columbia
Sara Behforootan, Research Associate, Imperial College London
Saranaz Barforoush, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Teaching, University of British Columbia
Sepideh Jodeyri, Member of Democratic Socialists of America (DSA)
Setareh Shohadaei, PhD Candidate, Department of Politics, The New School
Shadi Mokhtari, Assistant Professor, American University
Shirin Saeidi, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Arkansas
Sina Toossi Senior, Research Analyst, National Iranian American Council
Soroosh Shahriari, PhD Candidate, McGill University
Soudeh Ghasemi , President of the Iranian Canadian Congress
Sylvat Aziz, Associate professor, Queen’s university
Taha Ahmadi, Vostakolaei PhD Candidate, University of British Columbia
Thomas Woodley , President, Canadians for Justice and Peace in the Middle East
Trita Parsi, Adjunct Associate Professor, Georgetown University
Yaser Mirdamadi, Dr./ Researcher in Muslim biomedical ethics, the Institute of Isma’ili Studies, London
Younes Zangiabadi, Vice President, Institute for Peace & Diplomacy
Yousof Azizi , PhD Candidate in Public Administration at Virginia Tech School of Public and International Affairs
List of some of the academics and civil society activists who have signed the letter after it was published on march 28 (in no particular order):
Robert Crews, Professor, Stanford University
Yoshiko Ozawa, Japan International Cooperation Agency
Mahmud Farjami, Associate Professor. at Kristiania University Colleges
Roham Afghani Khoraskani, Assistant Professor + Shahid Beheshti University
Milad Mohammadi, Postdoctoral researcher at University Hospital of Cologne
Arang Keshavarzian, Associate Professor, New York University
Mohammad Reza Farzanegan , Professor of Economics of the Middle East/ Philipps-Universität Marburg Center for Near and Middle Eastern Studies (CNMS)
Meysam Akhtar, Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Arash Massoudieh, Associate Professor and Chair, The Catholic University of America
Amir Sabbagh, Molahosseini Research Fellow, Queens University Belfast
Mohammadmehdi Saberioon, Postdoctoral researcher in German geoscience research centre
Saeed Bagheri, Dr./ Postdoctoral fellow, University of Reading
Abdolrasool Divsallar, Program Associate, European University Institute
Kaveh Ehsani, Assistant Professor DePaul University
Pouyan Tabasinejad, Vice President, Iranian Canadian Congress
Fatemeh Abdollahzadeh, Professor, Central Connecticut State University
Hamidreza Azizi , Visiting Fellow, German Institute for International and Security Affairs
Mahmood Shafeie Zargar, Assistant Professor, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Ahmad Ehsandar, Research Associate – University of Waterloo
Abbas Javadtalab, Assistant professor,Concordia university
Salar Haghighatafshar, Researcher at the Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, Sweden
Eli Kramer, Institute of Philosophy, University of Wroclaw
Norma Claire Moruzzi, Director, International Studies Program, University of Illinois at Chicago
Alireza Keshavarz, Assistant Professor, Maynooth University
Damon Lynch, Doctoral Candidate at the University of Minnesota
Sanam Naraghi Anderlini, Founder/CEO International Civil Society Action Network
Mostafa Henaway, Social justice fellow/ PhD candidate geography planning and environmental studies Concordia University
Alireza Zandi Karimi, PhD, Part time faculty member, Concordia University
Melanie Shulman, Professor – Humber College
Anthony Paré, Professor, Universiy of British Columbia
Eli McCarthy, Adjunct Lecturer, Georgetown University
Reza Namdari, Community Activist, Engineer, Order of engineers
Parviz Haghgoo, Iranian Canadian Coalition for Peace
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Is Netanyahu’s Iran Story Expiring?
Iran has been an eternal part of the political narrative in Israel where political parties, particularly the Likud Party under the leadership of Netanyahu has heavily relied on the “Iranian Threat” as a fear mongering tactic to attract voters for elections.
By Reza Yeganehshakib
NOVEMBER 23, 2019
Last week, Israeli Attorney General Avichai Mandelblit announced Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to be formally indicted on charges relating to three cases of financial and political misconduct, carrying the possibility of jail time. While the media has largely focused on his scandals within the Isreali domestic affairs, it is also important to shed light on Netenyahu’s misuse of a foreign country, Iran, to shape the domestic politics inside the country.
Iran has been an eternal part of the political narrative in Israel where political parties, particularly the Likud Party under the leadership of Netanyahu has heavily relied on the “Iranian threat” as a fear-mongering tactic to attract voters for elections. Every election, Netenyahu’s narrative revolves around him being the only capable leader to deter the Islamic Republic. However, the Iranian threat narrative no longer seems to be working well for him after Israeli media also revealed his involvement in a “secret deal” that benefited Iran. But what role Iran could possibly play in a deal that Netanyahu claims to reinforce the security of Israel?
The story dates back to the Cold War era when the Iranian government purchased significant shares of a German leading steel company called Thyssen in 1974. Iran’s investment in the company was part of the country’s broader strategy to avoid inflation and damages to its economy. This was mainly a response to an unprecedented inflow of cash into the economy as a result of a sudden rise in the price of crude oil following the Arab oil embargo in 1973. Consequently, the government decided to massively invest its surplus in several overseas giant corporations such as Thyssen. In this case, they bought more than 24% of the company’s shares, which was later reduced with the involvement of a merger company after the Iranian Revolution.
In March 1999, Thyssen officially merged with Krupp, a 400-year old German steel and weapon manufacturer that is known for its battleships, tanks, and U-boats. Resultantly, the Islamic Republic of Iran suddenly became a major shareholder of an international giant battleship and modern weapon manufacturer. Yet, this partnership didn’t live long as the United States used its influence to end Iran’s partial ownership of this company.
In May 2003, President George W. Bush’s pressured Europe to restrict their economic ties with Iran as part of the US containment strategy against Iran. Hence, Thyssenkrupp was forced to repurchase 16.9 million shares of its Iranian partner as well as Iran Foreign Investment Company (IFIC) for $437 million. This reduced Iran’s share from 24% to 4.5%, pleasing the Americans while leaving the Germans very unsatisfied with the outcome. They forcefully made great concessions to the Iranians and faced a consequent adverse impact on their stockholders’ equity as well as the company’s overall assets. Despite making concessions, Washington negatively responded to the company’s request to be reimbursed for their loss in this one-sided deal with Tehran.
The story attracted the media attention after Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel’s most-read newspaper, reported on the Islamic Republic being a minority shareholder in Thyssenkrupp. This expectedly became controversial, considering Israel recently signed a contract with the same company to purchase three submarines.
This later led to Attorney General open an investigation into Prime Minister Netanyahu’s personal attorney, David Shimron who convinced Prime Minister to sign a $1 billion deal with Thyssenkrupp that Shimron himself was representing in Israel. This did not go as easy for the government that was already struggling with another scandal related to Iran.
In August 2016, Swiss high-level court ruled Israel to pay Iran an approximate amount of $1.1 billion-plus interest in order to cover Iran’s loss for its shares in the Eilat-Ashkelon Pipeline Company (EAPC). This company was founded in 1968 to pump Iran’s oil from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. However, Iran received no benefits from the operations of the pipeline, which has been active since its creation.
What is clear is that Israel is quite pragmatic and business-minded when it comes to making deals with the so-called “enemy”. Whether it is delivering weapons to Tehran in Iran-Contra affairs or partaking in deals that benefit Iran, Likud party has managed to simultaneously run effective and fear-based anti-Iran campaigns while benefiting from deals associated with Iran. Netanyahu has surely been the mastermind behind such campaigns as he cleverly deviated attention from crucial internal issues such as housing crisis, unemployment, and failure to make peace with the Palestinians, and diverted it all to the Iranian threat in order to sway public opinion in his favour. However, his recent indications along with the marginal victory of Blue and White Alliance prove that the Netenyahu’s Iran story will not work forever; and the Likud party, especially after Neteyahu’s departure, needs to redesign its strategy based on internal matters if it wants to remain in power.
Reza Yeganehshakib is an Associate Faculty in the Department of History with a specialization in the Middle East and World History at Saddleback College and Santa Monica College
Institute For Peace & Diplomacy
Earlier this month, our research fellow
wrote an article about the politics of the #COVID19, arguing that some governments have used "the threat of contagion to threaten civil liberties and consolidate anti-democratic authority." 1/4
COVID-19 Is a Turning Point for Global Power - The Institute for Peace and Diplomacy
The COVID-19 crisis has been a ‘turning point’ for China, giving it an opportunity–precisely as America’s leadership is faltering–to shift global power from West to East. The blame game that has...
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Institute For Peace & Diplomacy
2/ Today, thousands of Israelis stood six feet apart in Tel Aviv's Rabin Square to protest what they consider the erosion of democracy under the coronavirus-era government of Benjamin Netanyahu.
Thousands of Israelis maintain social distancing while protesting Netanyahu
Police marked spots two meters apart where protestors could stand.
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Institute For Peace & Diplomacy
3/ In his article, Narbutt had specifically mentioned PM Netanyahu among others who have seriously undermined democratic principals under the guise of preventing the spread of COVID-19. This has led some to call Israel the first ‘coronavirus dictatorship’. Why?
1:02 AM · Apr 20, 2020·Twitter Web App
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Institute For Peace & Diplomacy
4/4 Because: - He has bypassed the Knesset to institute draconian surveillance and geolocation measures. - Amid corruption charges and the formation of a new government, Netanyahu has closed the courts and the national legislature. All for his thirst to remain in POWER.
Economic Sanctions and Protection of Fundamental Human Rights: A Perspective from Tehran
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought the important issue of the humanitarian impact of sanctions into the public discussion among policymakers, academics and civil society activists.
Iran is among the hardest-hit countries by COVID-19. It is also one of the few countries dealing with this level of cases while living under severe economic sanctions. In recent weeks world leaders, civil society organizations and hundreds of academics worldwide have called on the US administration to ease economic sanctions on Iran at least for the duration of the coronavirus crisis.
The Institute for Peace & Diplomacy hosted a discussion with Prof. Hassan Razavi on April 30, 2020 to discuss the impact of Trump’s Iran sanctions on fundamental human rights of Iranians including the right to food and the right to health.
Hassan Razavi is a Professor at the University of Tehran, Faculty of Law and Political Science. Before joining University of Tehran, he lectured economic sanctions and international trade law at the McGill Faculty of Law where he spent two years of postdoctoral fellowship. He has extensively studied the impact of sanctions and the responsibilities of the sanctioning state from the perspective of international law. Link to Dr. Razavi’s recent article in the Washington International Law Journal: https://bit.ly/3cMqvCL
Watch our discussion with Prof. Hassan Razavi:
A Vision for a Progressive Canadian Foreign Policy
IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS FEBRUARY 3, 2020
AUTHOR: AMADEUS NARBUTT
(Central part of the article)
Another avenue that Canada can pursue in search of peace is nuclear non-proliferation. Especially in light of recent tensions between the United States and Iran, this goal should be at the forefront of any progressive foreign policy agenda. There have long been efforts to declare the Middle East a nuclear weapons-free zone (NWFZ) in the United Nations General Assembly. While Canada has continued to vote for the original NWFZ proposal, Resolution 3263, Canada has repeatedly voted against putting such plans into action. Specifically, Canada has pointed to its relationship with Israel as the obstacle to supporting substantive actions towards the creation of a NWFZ in the Middle East, since enforcement of such a zone would require Israel to abandon its longstanding tradition of ‘nuclear ambiguity’ and advance towards disarmament. Canada’s vote against the resolution on this matter leaves it in a lonely camp populated only by the United State, Israel, and Micronesia. This vote does not assist in building Canada’s image as a state that is honestly advancing an agenda of peacekeeping. Nuclear disarmament should not be an area of disagreement; the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists’ warnings about the dangers of nuclear conflict must be taken seriously and a progressive Canadian foreign policy must pursue nuclear disarmament in the Middle East.
The Institute for Peace & Diplomacy
The Institute for Peace & Diplomacy (IPD) is a non-profit and non-partisan foreign policy think tank dedicated to promoting peace through diplomacy and dialogue. There is a growing need in foreign policy circles for progressive and independent voices. The IPD aims to fill this gap by building a network of experts, researchers and advocates who are ready to offer fresh and constructive ideas to resolve global challenges and conflicts through peaceful means. Through its publications, conferences, policy briefings, and recommendations the IPD will provide its perspective to policymakers, leaders in government, civil society and businesses.
MEET THE TEAM
Executive Vice President Younes Zangiabadi Co-Founder
Executive Director Bijan Ahmadi Co-Founder
Pouyan Kimiayjan Fellow Associate
Amadeus Narbutt Research Associate