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Tel Aviv University
[Tel Aviv U] Rafi Greenberg and colleagues lead a strugle to take City of David, most important archeological site, out of the hands of Jews


Monday, Feb. 08, 2010

Archaeology in Jerusalem: Digging Up Trouble


The Jerusalem syndrome is a psychological disorder in which a visit to the holy city triggers delusional and obsessive religious fantasies. In its extreme variety, people wander the lanes of the Old City believing they are biblical characters; John the Baptist, say, or a brawny Samson, sprung back to life.

Archaeologists in the Holy Land like to joke that their profession is vulnerable to a milder form of the syndrome. When scientists find a cracked, oversize skull in the Valley of Elah, it can be hard to resist the thought that it might have belonged to Goliath, or to imagine, while excavating the cellars of a Byzantine church, that the discovery of a few wooden splinters might be part of the cross on which Christ died. This milder malady is nothing new. In the mid-19th century, British explorers who came to Jerusalem with a shovel in one hand and a Bible in the other used the holy book as a sort of treasure map in the search for proof of Christianity's origins. (See a video of the Pope visiting the Holy Land.)

Now an extreme case of the willful jumbling of science and faith is threatening Jerusalem's precarious spiritual balance. It could not come at a worse time: Israeli-Arab peace talks have stalled; Israel has a hawkish government disinclined to compromise; and radical Islamist group Hamas remains powerful among Palestinians. Any tilt in Jerusalem's religious equilibrium could create a wave of unrest spreading far beyond the city's ramparts. Eric Meyers, who teaches Jewish studies and archaeology at Duke University, says: "Right now, Jerusalem is a tinderbox. "

The story begins with a right-wing Jewish settler organization called Elad, but also known as the Ir David Foundation, which for the past four years has exerted control over most of the holy city's excavations. Led by David Be'eri, an ex-Israeli commando who used to disguise himself as an Arab for undercover missions in the Palestinian territories, Elad now has the backing of the Israeli Prime Minister's office, the municipality, and the vaunted Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), which monitors all archaeological work in the country and which Elad helps finance. Elad's own funding comes through unnamed private donors. (Israeli newspapers have reported that a few Russian-Jewish oligarchs, including Chelsea Football Club owner Roman Abramovich, attended a 2005 Elad fundraiser.) The organization's aim is best expressed in a religious website's 2007 interview with development director Doron Speilman. He gestures toward Silwan, an Arab neighborhood that spills down from the Mount of Olives, and says: "Our goal is to turn all this land you see behind you into Jewish hands." (See pictures of 60 years of Israel.)

Elad's activities, in the views of its opponents, amounts to turning over Jerusalem's archaeology to extremist Jewish settlers. That has alarmed many Israeli and international scholars, Palestinian officials, and human-rights advocates. On a political level, it complicates efforts by the White House to enable both Palestinians and Israelis to share Jerusalem as their respective capitals, a key demand of the Palestinians. For scholars, it sparks concerns about whether Elad can be independent and objective in its work. And for Jerusalemites it raises a fundamental question: What matters more, the stones and bones of antiquity, or the lives of the people who live on top of all that history?

Digging In to Push Out
Because it involves burrowing near the geographic core of three faiths — Christianity, Islam and Judaism — archaeology in Jerusalem has always been fraught. All three religions believe that it was here, on a stony hill, under roiling clouds speared by light, that God stopped Abraham from sacrificing his son. Christians also believe that Jesus walked, taught and was crucified in Jerusalem, and that he rose from the dead there. Muslims say that in the early days of Islam, Prophet Muhammad prayed first in the direction of Jerusalem before turning to Mecca, and that he was once transported by a flying horse to Jerusalem where he ascended to heaven. The city is embedded in the psyche of every Christian, Jew and Muslim.

Elad's opponents accuse it of using archaeology as a means to expand Jewish settlements in Arab East Jerusalem. That would make it virtually impossible for the Palestinians to turn their section of the city into a future capital. According to Duke University's Meyers, Elad is "misusing archaeology as a tool of dispossession." Putting an ideologically motivated settler group in charge of excavations, says Daniel Seidemann, a lawyer from Ir-Amim, 
a Jerusalem-based civil rights organization, is like "outsourcing the fire department to a pyromaniac." (Elad founder Be'eri did not respond to repeated interview requests from TIME for this article.)

The flash point in the dispute is Silwan, an Arab village now listed in Israeli guidebooks as the City of David. It lies on the steep hillside just below the Old City's ancient, gleaming stones, facing towards the Dead Sea. Most of Silwan's Arab residents arrived in the 1930s, building homes that cling to the sides of the valley. Arab boys still canter on horses along the far hills. Some say that Job lived in Silwan, and that today's residents have inherited his ceaseless woes. According to Elad's Spielman, Be'eri was doing undercover work for the Israeli military in the mid-1980s in Silwan when a friendly Arab pointed out some ruins buried under a pile of garbage. "We know this is yours, we know this is your archaeology," the commando reported the Arab telling him.

The villager had a point. In the mid-19th century, British explorer Charles Warren, while searching for the legendary treasures of King Solomon, uncovered a shaft leading down to an underground stream. He hypothesized that this was the water source for the city founded in 1000 B.C. by the Jewish King David. This underground stream, which surfaces in the Pool of Siloam about 500 ft. (150 m) below the ancient city walls, was Jerusalem's only source of water, so it made sense to Be'eri, and to many archaeologists, that David would have built his citadel over the stream or nearby. Inspired, in part, by Warren's claims, the multimillionaire and philanthropist Baron Edmond James de Rothschild in the early 20th century bought several acres of land in Silwan.

For Rothschild, Be'eri and a succession of 20th century archaeologists the lure was a powerful one: evidence of David's reign would be proof that a major Old Testament protagonist was a true historical figure, and not mere legend. Politically, the discovery of David's citadel would strengthen Jewish claims to a contested part of Jerusalem beyond its pre-1967 borders.

Late on a chilly October evening in 1991, Jewish settlers commandeered 11 buildings in Silwan and dug in. The case went to Israel's Supreme Court and Ariel Sharon, then Construction Minister (and later Prime Minister), rallied to the settlers' defense, arguing that "it is the policy of the government of Israel to encourage Jewish residence in Jerusalem." The settlers were allowed to stay, and Elad began building its presence in Silwan. The Israeli government turned over its property to the settlers, and Elad bought up Arab homes through intermediaries. Today, more than 500 settlers, along with Uzi-toting security guards, live among Silwan's 14,000 Arabs. Elad's archaeological expansion continues, with 88 Arab homes marked for demolition to build an "archaeological park." The group also has plans for a parking lot, a synagogue, 11 new houses for settlers and a cable car to the Mount of Olives, where many believe the Messiah will arrive.

With official Israeli backing, Elad has ambitions beyond Silwan. Lawyer Seidemann claims that since mid-2008, the Israeli government has accelerated a policy of "aggressively and covertly expanding and consolidating control over Silwan and the historic basin surrounding the Old City." The plan, he says, involves "the take-over of the public domain and Palestinian private property ... accelerated planning and approval of projects, and the establishment of a network of a series of parks and sites steeped in and serving up exclusionary, fundamentalist settler ideology." In its essence, the plan places a large area of Arab Jerusalem under Jewish control. "It risks transforming a manageable, soluble political conflict into an intractable religious war," he warns. For their part, many religious Israelis defend Elad's efforts to unearth their buried heritage. "For us, and for anyone who believes in the Bible, this is the real history," says Urieh King, a Jewish settler and activist. "These are our roots."

Welcome to Bible Land
For now, Elad's centerpiece is the City of David, a cross between an archaeological site and a Jewish theme park that draws more than 400,000 tourists a year. Visitors are led through a honeycomb of caverns and excavations propped up by scaffolding. Then they wade through an underground canal that emerges into sunlight at the Siloam pool, where Christ is said to have cured the blind. Nearly half the visitors are Israeli army conscripts and schoolkids who hear lyrical description from Elad's guides about how the site is the very foundation of Jewish culture and history. "In fact," Elad's development director Speilman boasted to Nachum News, an Israeli website, "60% of the Bible was written on this little hill." (See pictures of John 3:16 in pop culture.)

But many experts find Elad's archaeological claims dubious. Israel Finklestein, an archaeologist from Tel Aviv University says that while there may be ruins on the Elad site dating back to the 9th century B.C., "there's not a single piece of evidence about David's palace. These people are mixing faith with science." Yoni Mizrahi, an independent archaeologist formerly with the IAA, concurs: "You'd think from Elad's guides that they'd excavated a sign saying WELCOME TO DAVID'S PALACE. Their attitude seems to be that if you believe in the Bible, you don't need proof." Raphael Greenberg, lecturer at Tel Aviv University, says Elad ignores key archaeological practices. "You're supposed to dig for six weeks and then report on what you find. In the City of David, they've been digging nonstop for two years without a satisfactory report," Greenberg says. He accuses Elad of using archaeology as a "crowbar" to "throw out the Palestinians living in Silwan and turn it into a Jewish place."

Elad's chief archaeologist, Eilat Mazar, says that "our working theory is that David's palace is down there." Mazar, an associate of the right-wing Shalem think tank, claims that workers have uncovered pottery shards from the 11th century B.C. and Phoenician motifs. "We know the Phoenicians built a palace for David," she says. (See pictures of a divided Jerusalem.)

All excavations in Jerusalem are overseen by the IAA, and its director, ex-General Shuka Dorfman explained to TIME that while Elad manages and funds more than a dozen digs around Jerusalem, an IAA archaeologist is always on-site to analyze findings. Dorfman concedes that the settler organization's interpretation of its findings in Silwan "is different from ours." He adds: "They emphasize only the Jewish heritage." Sometimes, according to archaeologist Mizrahi, the Elad-sponsored digs ignore other strata of Jerusalem's multi-cultural history. "They're only focusing on one tradition — the Jewish one," he says.

He has a point. In 2008, it emerged that while Elad-sponsored archaeologists were digging near the Western Wall, they found and removed dozens of skeletons from a Muslim graveyard without properly documenting the find, according to Haaretz, an Israeli daily. The skeletons have since gone missing. After a barrage of complaints against the IAA by academics, Palestinians and civil rights groups, the agency's chairman, Professor Benjamin Kedar, conceded in a statement that the IAA is "aware that Elad — an association with a pronounced ideological agenda — has presented the history of the City of David in a biased manner." So far, though, the cash-strapped IAA says it has no plans to review its ties with the settlers, who are its main funders.

A Fragile Peace
Naturally, archaeology's Jerusalem Syndrome is not limited to a single religion. Many Muslim scholars refuse to believe that a Jewish temple ever existed beneath the Haram al-Sharif, or Temple Mount, even though thousands of Jews flock every day to pray at the Western Wall. The Waqf — Jerusalem's Islamic authority — made Jews furious in 1999 when they built an underground mosque inside the Haram al-Sharif and, according to irate Israeli scholars, gouged out "several hundred" trucks' worth of debris, destroying evidence that might shed light on Judaism's holiest site. "This was politically motivated," fumes archaeologist Gabriel Barkay, who leads a team of volunteers that has spent years sifting through large mounds of material from the sacred precinct that was rescued from a city dump. "In places where you should have used a toothbrush, they used a bulldozer."

But few projects threaten Jerusalem's peace as much as that at Silwan. In 2007, Arabs there began hearing strange banging under their homes "like an earthquake," one resident recalls. Soon, cracks opened up in the floors and snaked up the walls. The Silwan residents protested against the settlers' tunneling, without the necessary permits or safeguards. "All that happened was that the police arrested us," complains Jawan Siyam, a Silwan local. Elad was opening up a 650 yd.-long (600 m) drainage tunnel, running under Arab homes, that Elad claims dates back 2,000 years, and may have been used by Jewish rebels to escape a Roman siege. Civil rights groups last year got the Supreme Court to suspend the diggings. In its ruling, the court said that the local authorities had failed to obtain consent from the owners of the houses marked for demolition.

Could Elad's work upset Jerusalem's fragile balance between Islam and Judaism? Palestinian historian and Waqf religious affairs archaeologist Yousef Natsheh believes so. He points out that one of the main triggers of the 2000 Palestinian uprising — which led to the deaths of more than 5,500 Palestinians and 1,000 Israelis — was a visit to the Haram al-Sharif precinct by Sharon, then Israel's opposition leader, along with a phalanx of armed police. "The situation now is very, very tense," he warns.

It shouldn't be. Jerusalem is one of the world's richest archaeological sites. In its 6,000-year history, the city has changed hands more than 120 times. It has been ruled — and this is an incomplete list — by Jebusites, Israelites, Romans, Persians, Greeks, crusaders, Mamelukes, Ottomans, British, Jordanians and modern Israelis. "We Jews are not alone here," says archaeologist Finklestein. Would that all who treasure the holy city — of any religion and none — could agree on sharing its sacred past.
— With reporting by Yonit Farago, Jamil Hamad and Aaron J. Klein / Jerusalem




Reprints of anti-Israel articles do not represent the position of IAM, and they are being reproduced as a public service

Published at The Islamic Christian commission http://www.elquds.org/english/


Sunday, 24 January 2010 09:51

Israeli Settlers, Archaeologists and Dispossession in Palestinian Silwan

By Yigal Bronner*

In the early 1990s, a settler organization by the name of Elad (a Hebrew acronym for: To the City of David) began to plot its takeover of Silwan, a densely populated Palestinian neighborhood located a stone’s throw away from the Temple Mount and the Al Aqsa Mosque. Silwan is also home to one of the world’s most important archeological sites – the original Jerusalem where, according to the Biblical story, King David established his capital some 3000 years ago. Elad never hid its goals: to control this sensitive site and replace Silwan’s Palestinian residents with Jewish settlers. Like other settler organizations, Elad gradually found ways of influencing the higher echelons of Israeli power and gained permission to operate on the ground.

In the winter of 1997-8, however, Elad suffered a series of setbacks. After several complaints were filed with the police, the state sued the settler organization for building without permit on the historic site and for damaging archaeological remains. Meanwhile, the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), who earlier thwarted Elad’s plan to build 200 new homes over and around the excavations was warning the Attorney General against handing over Israel’s most important archeological site to an organization on the margins of the law. Soon after, the Israeli Supreme Court held a hearing at which the Jerusalem Municipality and the Israel Nature and National Parks Protection Authority promised to reconsider handing the “City of David National Park” to Elad. The same court decreed earlier that Elad’s acquisition of Palestinian homes in Silwan involved unlawful actions.

Yet, as is often the case, the Israeli justice system proved ineffectual against the settlers. Today, ten years later, Elad fully controls Silwan. The Palestinian neighborhood is now dotted with a dozen settler outposts, clearly visible with their watchtowers, flags, and armed guards. Elad also runs the National park and visitors’ center, providing tourists with an extremely one-sided version of history.

Moreover, as the residents of Silwan know all too well, Elad also has the full backing of the Jerusalem Municipality, the National Park Authority, the Israel Land Administration, and the Jerusalem Police. Thus when a few residents filed yet another lawsuit against Elad’s activities last month, the police stormed their homes that same night, and five people were arrested “for theft.” Those courageous enough to file a complaint at the police station itself were also instantly arrested. In short, Elad is the law in Silwan, where people joke that “David” in “City of David” stands for Elad leader David Be’ery, Silwan’s ‘Sheriff,’ who to this day resides in one of the homes whose acquisition the court decried.

But perhaps the most unexpected accomplice of Elad is the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA). The same government agency that in 1997 warned against handing over the site to the settlers is now Elad’s happy subcontractor. For on top of everything else, Elad runs all the excavations in Silwan: it decides where and when to dig and hires the IAA to do the work.
This is a sweet deal for the budget-hungry IAA and for its archeologists. It is also a sweet deal for the settler organization. The IAA itself issues the required digging permits in an internal process of dubious legality, thus allowing Elad to turn archeology into its most effective instrument of dispossession. Many open areas in Silwan have been fenced off as an excavation sites, and the settlers have now sent the IAA to dig under Palestinian homes, probably in the hope that their lives will become so miserable that they will simply leave.

The court has issued a staying order against one of these digs, but others have immediately popped up, and recent judicial history gives little scope for optimism. Elad is also pushing to destroy 88 Palestinian homes to expand the “archeological park" in the area of the neighborhood known as Al-Bustan. International pressure prevented the demolition from taking place in 2005, but the plan has not been abandoned.

Needless to say, the excavations run by Elad and the IAA violate professional rules of ethics concerning "equitable partnerships and relationships" between archaeologists and indigenous peoples (as stipulated by the World Archeological Congress) as well as the universally accepted convention on excavation, including excavating in occupied territories (the New Delhi Agreements). That science is being sacrificed to serve a narrow political agenda can be seen from the fact that not one of the historical Muslim buildings in the national park has been preserved, and some were not even documented.

Many Israeli archeologists are unhappy with this situation, though most of them are unwilling to openly criticize the IAA, their main source for jobs and funds. Still, a small group of Israeli archeologists led by Dr. Rafi Greenberg (Tel Aviv University) has established ties with the residents of Silwan and has been lobbying for Elad’s removal from the site. Renowned scholars throughout the world, including many senior historians and archaeologists, have signed a petition to the same effect.

Another team of Israeli archeologists has held talks with their Palestinian counterparts and came up with a historical document, the "Israeli-Palestinian Cultural Heritage Agreement." But Shuka Dorfman, a former army general and the current director of the IAA, is unimpressed. In a recent interview to Ha’aretz, he responded to such initiatives by warning against “bringing politics into archeology” and urged “leaving these matters to the decision makers.”

In practice, all decisions about archaeological work in Silwan are taken by Elad. It's good to know that politics are not involved.

* Yigal Bronner teaches on South Asia at the University of Chicago. He is also active in the joint Israeli-Palestinian campaign in Silwan and is one of the signatories to the petition calling for taking archeology in the City of David out of the hands of Elad.








Petition: Take Archaeology in the City of David out of the Hands of Elad Thursday, 21 January 2010 08:06

For nearly a decade, all archaeological work in the Wadi Hilwe area of Silwan in East Jerusalem—that is, the City of David, the core of ancient Jerusalem and one of the most sensitive archaeological sites in Israel—has been controlled by Elad, an organization of right-wing Israeli settlers. More precisely, the Israel Nature and National Parks Protection Authority (INPA), which has legal responsibility for this area, has appointed Elad as its sub-contractor in Silwan; Elad, in turn, has commissioned the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) to carry out excavations in this neighborhood. What is more, permission to dig in Silwan has been granted by an internal process within the IAA, distinct from the usual norms for large-scale excavation applied to other sites in Israel. What this means is that Elad decides everything of consequence relating to the Wadi Hilwe sites—including the decision to expand and extend the digging as it sees fit, without reference to the needs and rights of Silwan's Palestinian residents. There is no precedent in Israel for handing over responsibility for serious archaeological work to a militant political organization with its own clear (extremist) agenda.


Elad also runs a visitor's center which offers a highly one-sided, nationalist version of the history of this neighborhood. Visitors to the site receive, along with the entry ticket they purchase, a propaganda pamphlet embodying this distorted historical narrative. Lavishly funded by foreign donors, Elad is engaged in a relentless process of turning Silwan into an area of Jewish settlement, at the same time dispossessing many of the Palestinian residents.

Recently, the residents of Silwan have complained that ongoing archaeological work is undermining the foundations of their houses. A grass-roots protest in the neighborhood, including an appeal to the Israel Supreme Court, has met with violent suppression by the police, including the harassment and repeated arrests of the signatories to the appeal. On March 17, 2008, the Court issued a restraining order against Elad and temporarily halted further extension of the digging.

Archaeology is, or should be, a discipline untainted by narrow political or sectarian interests. In Silwan, sadly, archaeology—and the Israel Antiquities Authority—are being openly exploited for purely political purposes that include the removal of innocent civilians from their homes. We call upon the government of Israel, the Jerusalem Municipality, the INPA, the IAA, and all responsible members of Israel's academic community to put an end at once to this blatant perversion and dangerous politicization of an academic field of endeavor.

Professor Marshall Sahlins, University of Chicago
Professor Katheryn Linduff, University of Pittsburgh, Archaeology
Professor Hsu Cho-Yun, University of Pittsburgh
Professor Robert D. Drennan, University of Pittsburgh
Dr. William Honeychurch, Yale University, Archaeology
Professor Robert Schneider, Indiana. Editor, American History Review
Professor Andras Hamori, Princeton
Professor Russell Tuttle, University of Chicago
Professor Carolyn Wright, Brown University
Professor David Bell, Johns Hopkins
Professor Tom Laqueur, University of California, Berkeley
Professor Carla Hesse, University of California, Berkeley
Professor Lorraine Daston, Max-Planck Institute, Berlin
Professor Dror Wahrman, Indiana University
Professor Nathaniel Tarn, Rutgers
Professor Steve Weizman, Indiana University
Professor Philip E. L. Smith, Archaeology, Université de Montreal
Professor Nerissa Russell, Cornell University
Professor Rashid Khalidi, Columbia University
Professor Sheldon Pollock, Columbia University
Professor David Myers, UCLA
Professor Mark Cohen, Princeton
Professor Gil Eyal, Columbia
Dr. Aryeh Cohen, American Jewish University
Professor McGuire Gibson, University of Chicago
Professor Lawrence Kirmayer, McGill University
Professor Howard Spodek, Temple University
Professor Susan Neiman, Einstein Forum, Berlin
Professor Eugene Sheppard, Brandeis University
Professor Wendy Doniger, University of Chicago
Professor Idan Segev, Hebrew University
Eliot Weinberger, New York
Professor Gwen Bennett, Washington University
Professor Naomi Standen, Newcastle University
Professor Francois G. Richard, University of Chicago
Dr. Miriam Stark, University of Hawaii
Professor Carolyn Forche, Skidmore University
Professor Magnus Fiskesjö, Cornell University
Dr. David Gimbel, Archaeos
Dr. Marina Rustow, Emory University
Professor Joyce Flueckiger, Emory University
Professor Yaron Ezrahi, Hebrew University
Professor Adam Rubin, Hebrew Union College, Los Angeles
Professor Anne Monius, Harvard University
Professor Jonathan Malino, Guilford College
Professor Michael Dietler, University of Chicago
Professor Pierre Joris, State University of New York, Albany
Dr. David Baptiste-Chirot, Milwaukee
Professor Anne Waldman, Naropa University
Professor Avi Shlaim, Oxford
Professor Natalie Davis, Princeton
Professor Charles Malamoud, École Pratique des Hautes Études
Professor Judith Butler, University of California, Berkeley
Professor David Shulman, Hebrew University
Dr. Neve Gordon, Ben Gurion University
Dr. Yigal Bronner, University of Chicago
Professor Philip L. Kohl, Wellesley College
Dr. Moshik Temkin, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales
Emeritus Professor Chris Petrie, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Dr. Ian Straughn, Brown University
Dr. phil. Bernd Kulawik, Universität Bern, Switzerland
Professor Emerita Claire Kahane, University at Buffalo
Professor Joseph Nevins, Vassar College
Dr. Sanda A Scham, Catholic University
Dr. Brian Boyd, Columbia University, New York
Adina Hoffman, Author
Dr. Tilde Rosmer, University of Oslo
Professor Michael Keren, Hebrew University
Dr. Tamar Keren-Portnoy, University of York
Professor John Bunzl, University of Vienna
Professor Eric Meyers, Duke University
Dr. David Wengrow, Institute of Archaeology, University College London
Professor David Abraham, University of Miami School of Law
Mr. Mike Cushman, London School of Economics and Political Science
Professor Jonathan Rosenhead, London School of Economics
Mr. Yishay Mor, London Knowledge Lab, Institute of Education, London University
Ms. Ruth Lukom, London Metropolitan University
Dr. David Ilan, Hebrew Union College
Professor Gideon Shelach-Lavi, Hebrew University
Dr. Jeff Warner, California State University Fullerton
Dr. Bruce N. Fisk, Westmont College
Professor of English Emerita Claire Kahane, University at Buffalo
Lecturer Judith Green, Hebrew University
Professor Esther Cohen, Hebrew University
Professor Joseph Zeira, Hebrew University
Professor Emerita, Anthropology Jean Lave, University of California, Berkeley
Mr. Noam Knoller, Amsterdam School for Cultural Analysis, Univ. of Amsterdam
Professor Emerita Shoshana Blum-Kulka, Hebrew University
Professor Richard Kulka, Hebrew University
Dr. Ela Greenberg, Truman Institute, Hebrew University
Ms. Tamar Almog, Hebrew University
Ms. Michal Bareket, Hebrew University
Mr. Jeremy Aron, Sheffield University, UK
Ms. Ruth Lukom, London Metropolitan University
Mr. Ido Roll, Carnegie Mellon University
Professor Naftali Kaminski, University of Pittsburgh
Professor Ruth Fauman Fichman, University of Pittsburgh
Professor Michael Tarr, Brown University
Dr. Robert Kraftowitz, University of Pittsburgh
Dr. Veronika Cohen, Jerusalem Academy of Music and dance
Director for International Research Ran Boytner, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA
Professor of History & Policy Joel A. Tarr, Carnegie Mellon University
Professor Emerita Evalyn F. Segal, San Diego State University
Professor Andrew Parker, Amherst College
Ph.D Shakhar Rahav, University of Haifa
Dr. Caroline Wardle, University of Strathclyde
Egyptologist Paul Niel, CNRS-Paris IV Sorbonne
Dr. Daniel Price, Westfield State College (MA)
Dr. David Greenstein, The Academy for Jewish Religion
Professor H. Richard Rutherford, University of Portland
Dr. Richard Braun, UCLA
Professor Prange Thierry, Universite Rene Descartes Paris
Dr. Otniel E. Dror, The Hebrew University
Dr. Terri Ginsberg, North Carolina State University
Dr. Khalil Barhoum, Stanford University
Professor Emeritus Donald Malcolm Reid, Georgia State University
Dr. Yuval Gadot, Hebrew Union Collage, Jerusalem
Dr. Miriam Reik, Temple University
Professor Fijalkow Yankel, Université du Maine
Professor Amikam Cohen, The Hebrew University
Professor Anthony Alessandrini, City University of New York
Professor Emeritus James C. Faris, University of Connecticut
Ms. Chiara De Cesari, Stanford University
Professor Nathan Wasserman, The Hebrew University
Mr. Christopher Davey, Australian Institute of Archaeology
Professor Piotr Michalowski, University of Michigan
Dr. Lynn Swartz Dodd, University of Southern California
Dr. Bucker Dangor, Imperial College London
Mrs. Crystal Robert, Malaspina University-College
Archaeologist Iain Shearer, University College London
Professor Thomas Pepper, University of Minnesota
Mr. Edward Silver, University of Chicago
Dr. Jack Green, Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford
Mr. Yigal Bloch, The Hebrew University
Dr. Bruce Routledge, University of Liverpool
Dr. Alexander A. Fischer, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Germany
Prof. Leticia Rovira, Universidad Nacional de Rosario-Facultad de Humanidades y Artes
Dr Jasmin Michael, CNRS, France
Dr. Louis D. Levine, Museum of Jewish Heritage
Dr. Deborah Sweeney, Tel Aviv University
Dr. Mención Antropología Cristina Di Bennardis, Universidad Nacional de Rosario
Professor John S. Holladay, Jr., University of Toronto
Dr. Mahmoud Hawari, University of Oxford
Dr. Uri Gabbay, The Hebrew University
Professor Emeritus John Van Seters, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Dr. Stephanie Dalley, Oxford University
Dr. Harriet Martin, University of Birmingham
Professor Martti Nissinen, University of Helsinki
Professor Alan Millard, University of Liverpool
Professor Bernard Knapp, University of Glasgow, Scotland
Professor Jörg Frey, University of Munich
Dr. David A. Stacey, PhD at SOAS, London
Professor Pascal Attinger, University of Bern
Professor Zeev Herzog, Tel Aviv University
Professor of Greek Archaeology John C. Overbeck, University at Albany
Dr. Annemarie Kaufmann-Heinimann, University of Basel
Dr. Idelber Avelar, Tulane University
Dr. Yannis Hamilakis, University of Southampton
Ms. Birgit Haskamp, University of Birmingham
Dr. Alasdair Livingstone, University of Birmingham
Dr. Joseph Loss, Haifa University
Associate Professor Dr. Marcy Newman, Boise State University
Ms. Libby Boulter, University of Michigan
Professor Carol Meyers, Duke University
Dr. Reinhard Bernbeck, Binghamton University
Dr. Stephen R Euston, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
Dr. Julia Chaitin, Sapir Academic College
Director, Archaeological Seminars, Bernie Alpert, Oxford University-Wolfson College
Dr. J.P. Dessel, University of Tennessee
Professor Tony Judt, New York University
Mr. Emanuel Pfoh, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Dr. Norma Franklin, Tel Aviv University
Dr. Laurie King-Irani, Institute for Palestine Studies
Professor Philip Davies, University of Sheffield
Professor Ted Swedenburg, University of Arkansas
Dr. Hagit Shlonsky, Jerusalem
Professor John Bunzl, Austrian Institute for International Affairs (oiip), Vienna
Professor Brian Britt, Virginia Tech
Dipl.Pol. Annette Heimann, Free University Berlin
Ms. Martha Roth, Author
Professor Michael Meltsner, Northeastern University
Professor Yoram Avnimelech, Technion
Mr. Ronen Mandelkern, The Hebrew University
Ms. Amanda Jillings, St. Marys University College
Dr. Jim West, Quartz Hill School of Theology
Dr. Juana Celia Djelal, Pennsylvania State University
Professor Djelal Kadir, Penn State University
Ms. Catherine Lancelott Beddoes, UCLan
Dr. Yoav Lehahn, Tel Aviv University
Ms. Brooke Larson, Brigham Young University
Mr. David Parker, University of Leicester
Professor Sidra DeKoven Ezrahi, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Ms. Banu Aydinoglugil, University College London
Dr. Margreet L. Steiner, Independent Scholar
Dr. Yossef Rapoport, Queen Mary University of London
Mr. Veysel Apaydin, University College London
Mr. David Rosenberg, Guiding Coordinator, Jerusalem Science Museum, Hebrew University
Professor Elizabeth C. Stone, SUNY Stony Brook
Dr. Ghizlane Zoulati, Faculté de Médecine de Fès-Université Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdallah
Dr. Yifat Peleg, Open University
Dr. Robert Boyce, London School of Economics and Political Science
Dr. Susan Blackwell, University of Birmingham, UK
Professor Mark S. Smith, New York University
Professor Emeritus Melvin Simpson, State University of New York at Stony Brook
Professor of Anthropology Michael E. Smith, Arizona State University
Mr. Roi Livne, University of California, Berkeley
Professor Milton Moreland, Rhodes College
Dr. Carole Burnett, Catholic University of America
Professor Edward Gaffney, Valparaiso University
Dr. Sharon Zuckerman, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Professor Luis César Bou, National University of Rosario, Argentina
Professor David B. Small, Lehigh University
Professor Ron Hoz, Ben-Gurion University
Dr. Michael Feige, Ben-Gurion University
Dr. Donald N. Rallis, University of Mary Washington
Dr. Gal Levy, Israel Open University
Professor Edmund Burke III, Univ. of Calif., Santa Cruz
Dr. Zvi Solow, Ben-Gurion University
Professor Susan Pollock, Freie Universitaet-Berlin
Professor Christoph Uehlinger, University of Zurich
Dr. Jose C. Carvajal, Universidad de Granada (Spain)-University of Sheffield (UK)
Professor Terje Stordalen, University of Oslo
Mr. Brian Hole, University College London
Dr. Kate da Costa, University of Sydney
Dr. Paul Donnelly, University of Sydney
Professor JW. Nugroho Joshua, Negardipa University, Indonesia

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