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Tel Aviv University
Tanya Reinhart (TAU linguistics) finds some "Slow ethnic cleansing" ... of Arabs by Jews

[alef] Reinhart: Slow ethnic cleansing

Here is a translation of the Reinhart article Eldad posted - MM(WARNING: 7 pages long)The First Year: Slow Ethnic Cleansing - Tanya Reinhart (orig. Hebrew: http://www.hagada.org.il/hagada/html/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=3172 )The Policy of Injuries In order to understand the full extent of the Israeli
 crimes that are being committed in the process of 
suppressing the Palestinian uprising it is necessary 
to examine also the injuries, and not only the rising 
number of fatalities. Let us examine first what happened 
in the first weeks of the present uprising, since this is 
also the way things were subsequently, to varying 
degrees.[i] On Friday, November 3rd, CNN reported a 'relative calm' 
in the territories. By afternoon that day there were 
276 people injured[ii], and by the final count "Up to 
452 Palestinians were hurt on Friday across the 
territories, according to the Red Crescent".[iii] On 
Saturday, November 4th, as the the media covers in great 
length of Barak's "plea to Palestinian leader Yasser 
Arafat to return to the negotiating table and stop the 
Palestinian-Israeli bloodshed for the sake of peace",[iv] 
"another 153 were treated for injuries sustained in 
clashes with Israeli troops",[v] including "5 school 
children from Sa'ir (near Hebron) who are in extremely 
critical condition".[vi]  More than 7000 Palestinians are reported injured so far.  
Several Palestinian medical sources report that an 
alarming number of them are injured in the head or 
legs (knees), with carefully aimed shots, and, 
increasingly, live ammunition.[vii] Many will not 
recover, or will be disabled for life.  This pattern of injuries cannot be accidental. Dan 
Ephron, Boston Globe correspondent in Jerusalem reported 
on the findings of the Physicians for Human Rights 
delegation:  "American doctors who examined Israel's 
use of force in the West Bank and Gaza Strip have 
concluded that Israeli soldiers appeared to be 
deliberately targeting the heads and legs of 
Palestinian protestors, even in non-life-threatening
 situations."[viii] Medical School doctors in the 
delegation explained that law enforcement officials 
worldwide are trained to aim at the chest in dangerous 
situations (since it is the largest target), and the 
fact that Palestinians were hit in the head and legs 
suggests that there was no life-threatening situation, 
soldiers had ample time, and were deliberately trying 
to harm unarmed people. In fact, the Israelis are not even trying to conceal 
their shooting strategies. Interviews like the following 
can be easily found in the Israeli media:  Nahshon battalion ready for urban warfare By Arieh O'Sullivan  JERUSALEM (October 27) - "I shot two people... in their 
knees. It's supposed to break their bones and neutralize 
them but not kill them," says Sgt. Raz, a sharpshooter 
from the Nahshon battalion.  "How did I feel? ...Well actually, I felt pretty satisfied 
with myself," the 20-year-old soldier confides. "I felt 
I could do what I was trained to do, and it gave me a 
lot of self-confidence to think that if we get into 
a real war situation I'd be able to defend my comrades 
and myself."[ix]  A common practice is shooting a rubber coated metal 
bullet straight in the eye - a little game of well 
trained soldiers, which requires maximum precision. 
Reports on eye injuries keep coming daily. "On October 11,
 El Mizan Diagnostic Hospital in Hebron reported treating
 11 Palestinians for eye injuries, including 3 children. 
El Nasir Ophthalmic Hospital in Gaza has treated 16 people
 for eye injuries, including 13 children.  Nine of them 
lost one of their eyes".[x] "From 29 September to
 25 October 2000, Jerusalem's St. John Eye Hospital 
has treated 50 patients for eye-injuries".[xi] Stray bullets do not hit so many people precisely in the 
eye head, or knee. The Israeli army prepared carefully 
for the present events: "Established just over a year 
ago specifically to deal with unrest in the West Bank...
The IDF has trained four battalions for low-intensity conflict, and Nahshon is the one specializing
 in urban warfare. Its troops train in mock Palestinian 
villages constructed in two IDF bases."[xii]  Specially trained Israeli units, then, aim, shoot and 
hit the target in a calculated manner: Cripple, but 
keep the statistics of dead low. This is reported openly
 (and quite proudly) in the Israeli media. The same 
Jerusalem Post article explains that "the overall IDF
 strategy is to deprive the Palestinians of the massive 
number of casualties the army maintains Palestinians want 
in order to win world support and consolidate their fight 
for independence.'We are very much trying not to kill 
them...' says Lt.-Col. Yoram Loredo, commander and founder 
of the Nahshon battalion."[xiii]  The reason is clear enough: Massive numbers of dead 
Palestinians every day cannot go unnoticed even by the 
most cooperative Western media and governments. Barak 
was explicit about this. "The prime minister said that, 
were there not 140 Palestinian casualties at this point, 
but rather 400 or 1,000, this... would perhaps damage 
Israel a great deal."[xiv] With a stable average of five 
casualties a day, they believe that Israel can continue 
'undamaged' for many more months. In a world so used to 
horrors, many feel that 180 dead in a month is sad and 
upsetting, but it is not yet an atrocity that the world 
should unite to stop. The 'injured' are hardly reported; 
they 'do not count' in the dry statistics of tragedy. Injuring Palestinians was and remains a consistent Israeli 
policy (by May 2001 two hundred eye injuries were treated 
in the St. John Eye Hospital alone).[xv] There are 
countless reports on the hopeless condition of many of 
the injured, and there are also detailed reports about 
medical needs that cannot be fulfilled. "For Gaza's 
population of 1 million, of whom 3,000 have been seriously 
injured in the intifadah, there are only two professionally trained 
rehabilitation specialists. Hundreds go without proper 
rehabilitation, not only because of inadequate facilities, 
but also because Israeli blockades around Gaza and 
the West Bank often cut off patients from health 
care." [xvi] By December 2001 25,000 injured Palestinians were 
reported, many of them blind and disabled. Their 
fate is a slow death, far from the camera's eye. 
Some of them will die because there are no hospitals 
to treat them, others will die because they cannot
 survive in their community that is afflicted with 
hunger and destruction of infrastructure.  Israel's systematic policy of injuring Palestinians
 cannot be explained as self-defence or as a spontaneous 
response to terrorism. It is an act of ethnic cleansing
 - a process in which one ethnic group is removed from
 territories that another is interested in ruling. 
In a place that attracts as much international attention 
as Israel/Palestine, ethnic cleansing cannot be carried 
out by a sudden act of mass slaughter or mass expulsion 
from the territory. Therefore there is a consistent 
process, the goal of which is slowly and gradually to 
compel people to die or to escape. Destruction of Palestinian Society Between October 2000 and December 2001, besides countless 
details about daily violence and cruelty, a clear picture 
emerged of a systematic effort to break Palestinian 
society and to destroy its infrastructures. A precise 
and painful summary of this tendency could be found in 
the words of Taher Masri, a Jordan politician of 
Palestinian origin, in an interview with Newsweek in 
December 2001. Masri explained that Israel is working 
on three levels. On the first level Israel's goal is 
"is to destroy the economic infrastructure of the 
Palestinian territories, which are largely agricultural 
and, formerly, touristic. During Israeli incursions into 
Bethlehem earlier this year, for instance, troops 
systematically trashed newly built tourist hotels." 
As part of this strategy they also uprooted olive and 
citrus trees in large agricultural areas. On the second 
level the goal is "to destroy the Palestinian 
Authority's systems, the police and the security 
agencies. Just as Sharon is demanding that Arafat
 strike at Hamas and the Islamic Jihad, Israel 
itself has destroyed 80% of the police stations in 
recent months . Sharon sets up serious restrictions on 
the ability of the Palestinian Authority to dispatch 
police reinforcements from one area to another." On 
the third level "Sharon is eliminating-liquidating-the 
Palestinian leadership. He is hitting the third rank now, 
but he will move up to the first. Without leadership, 
without your economic lifeblood, without security tools 
for the PA, the people will be ready to leave the 
country." [xvii] Over the course of four decades of occupation an absolute 
dependence on Israel has been imposed on the Palestinian 
economy. The Oslo accords deepened this dependency and 
gave it a quasi-legal status, on the model of the 
"Bantustans" in South Africa. The economic agreement 
between Israel and the Palestinians eloquently sets out 
"regulated passage of workers" between the two sides, 
"without compromising the right of either side from 
time to time to define the extent of the entry of workers 
into its territory and the conditions of their entry." 
To put it in more flexible terms, the meaning of the 
text is that this absolute control enjoyed by Israel 
allowed Israel to impose a complete economic boycott 
on the Territories since the beginning of the uprising: 
to prevent Palestinians from crossing into Israel, and 
to deny them commercial opportunities.  The economic situation of the Palestinians in the 
occupied territories, which deteriorated seriously 
during the Oslo years,[xviii] reached the level of 
disaster during the months of the new uprising. The 
siege that Israel imposed jailed the Palestinians in 
their towns and caused them a serious loss in employment 
and income. According to the findings of Miftah (The 
Palestinian Initiative for the Promotion of Global 
Dialogue and Democracy),[xix] in December 2001, the 
rate of unemployment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip 
reached 57%. This statistic includes not only those 
who lost their work-places in Israel, but also those 
who could not go to work because of closure and 
checkpoints, and those whose places of work were 
destroyed or closed.[xx] Agriculture - which as Masri mentioned is a main 
source of income - sustained and continues to sustain 
serious damage. The economic siege that Israel imposed 
on the Territories does not allow any exports. As in 
the labour market, here too the Territories are 
dependent on Israel in everything related to the 
sale of products, whether they sell them to Israel 
itself or whether they market them abroad (according 
to the Oslo Accords the Palestinians are not authorized 
to send exports abroad directly; only through Israeli 
companies). A document that the IDF prepared at the 
beginning of the uprising indicates, among other 
economic measures that would be taken against the 
Palestinian Authority,  If violence had not erupted, the Palestinian Authority 
would have constituted Israel's main source of 
agricultural products during the next year. Given 
the current situation, not only will that produce not 
be sold to Israel, but even the normal quantities will 
not be exported to Israel which will import this produce 
from other countries, in order to meet demand.[xxi] But now it is not a matter of export but mere survival. 
Israel does not spare the land any more than it spares 
the people. Miftah reports that in December 2001 the 
number of olive trees that were uprooted from Palestinian 
lands reached 112,900, and 3,669,000 square metres of 
agricultural lands were destroyed. In addition to all 
this, in many places farmers cannot get out to work their 
fields because of the military siege that Israel has 
imposed.  53% of the Palestinians live below the poverty line, 
that is, less than two dollars a day. The proud and 
sophisticated Palestinian society has been pushed into 
indigence. Below is one of many reports published in 
the British newspaper The Guardian: Before the intifada began last September, the number of 
Palestinians lining up for food sacks from the UN Relief 
and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East 
(UNRWA) was relatively small, restricted to a few cases 
of hardship. Now a substantial majority queue for aid .
 an UNRWA official in Jerusalem, said that food sacks 
were being distributed to about 217,000 families 
throughout the West Bank and Gaza. But shortage of 
funds, despite an international appeal, means such 
deliveries are restricted to three-month intervals .
 The food parcels are modest: comprising flour, 
lentils, sugar, cooking oil, dried milk, rice and 150
 shekels (about £25). But with many Palestinians 
unable to cross the blockade and travel to work, the 
handouts are a form of subsistence. At Jalazun, north of Ramallah on the West Bank, the 
arrival of the UN vehicles also brings noisy confusion. 
With flour clouding the air, the sweating aid workers 
pass sack after sack from the back of lorries to the men, 
women and children waiting below. It is a scene that the Palestinian Authority should 
welcome as a useful piece of propaganda. But press 
coverage of the convoys is discouraged because the 
recipients often feel humiliated: their attitude is 
that food aid is something for poor African countries, 
not for Palestinians. . Among the women lining up was 
mother of six Nuriddin Kharoub, 46, who admitted feeling 
humiliated. "I am embarrassed. It is like begging," 
she says. "Who wants to be like a beggar?"[xxii] Israel blocked the passage of supplies to the occupied 
territories, thereby accelerating the Palestinians' 
economic collapse. At the beginning of November 2000 the
 Independent reported that: "More than 900 truckloads
 for Palestinian territories, are stuck at the Israeli
 ports of Haifa and Ashdod. So are 1,000 new and used 
cars. At the same time, Israel is delaying the monthly 
transfer of about $30m in tax revenue paid by Palestinian 
workers or importers. . The Israelis do not deny wielding 
the economic weapon. "We are not trying to starve them 
out," said a government spokesman, "but we are using 
any means to convince the Palestinians to stop the 
violence. There is a struggle going on, Palestinians 
versus Israelis, and Israel is entitled to take every 
measure to defend itself."[xxiii] This stance was 
confirmed in the IDF report that was quoted above, 
wrapped in language appropriate for Israel's 
struggle against terrorism, which - 
it should be recalled - had not yet begun when 
the report was drafted:  Furthermore, huge quantities 
of goods intended for the Palestinian Authority remain 
undelivered in the Israeli port of Ashdod. This is a result of the Palestinian demand that its security 
personnel be allowed through the Karni Passage into 
Israel, to take delivery of the goods, without 
undergoing any form of security check. Israel cannot allow such hazardous entry into its border, 
which would increase the risk of terror attacks on 
Israeli civilians, especially when it is known that 
Palestinian officials are involved in arms smuggling. Therefore the goods remain where they 
are.[xxiv] This policy too has become worse with time. 
In December 2001 Amira Hass reported that 
"It's difficult to grasp all the information that 
comes from these besieged places. The lack of 
medical supplies, such as oxygen tanks, is a daily, 
desperate routine in the hospitals. Cooking gas and 
fuel and even drinking water routinely run out. 
Suppliers have difficulties bringing in fresh 
(Translated from Hebrew by Mark Marshall)
[i] This section is excerpted from my article
 "Don't say you didn't know", Yediot Ahronot, 
14 November 2000 [English version:  
http://www.tau.ac.il/~reinhart/political/DontSayYouDidntKnow.html - trans]. [ii] LAW Report, 3 Nov. 2000 http://www.tau.ac.il/~reinhart/political/ref1 [iii] Haaretz, 5 Nov. 2000[iv] AP, 5 Nov. 2000[v] Haaretz, 5 Nov. 2000[vi] Addameer - Prisoners' Support and Human Rights Association, Report, 4 Nov. 2000 http://www.tau.ac.il/~reinhart/political/ref1 [vii] Dr. Jumana Odeh, Director, Palestinian Happy Child Center, 24 Oct. 2000 report http://www.tau.ac.il/~reinhart/political/ref3 ;  LAW, 2 Nov. 2000 report http://www.tau.ac.il/~reinhart/political/ref4 [viii] Dan Ephron, Boston Globe, 4 Nov. 2000[ix] Arieh O'Sullivan, Jerusalem Post, 27 Oct. 2000 http://www.tau.ac.il/~reinhart/political/ref5 [x] LAW Report, 19 Oct. 2000 http://www.tau.ac.il/~reinhart/political/ref6 [xi] LAW Report, 2 Nov. 2000 http://www.tau.ac.il/~reinhart/political/ref6 [xii] Arieh O'Sullivan, Jerusalem Post, 27 Oct. 2000 http://www.tau.ac.il/~reinhart/political/ref5 [xiii] ibid[xiv] Jerusalem Post, 30 Oct. 2000[xv] Charles M. Sennott, Boston Globe, 3 May 2001 http://www.amputee-online.com/amputation/may01/ [xvi] ibid [xvii] Masri, who is from one of the most wealthy and influential families in Nablus, is a senior figure in Jordanian politics. The interview with him was conducted by Christopher Dickey, Newsweek Web Exclusive, 7 Dec. 2000 http://www.palestinecampaign.org/archives.asp?xid=470  [xviii] See Sarah Roy, "Decline and Disfigurement: The Palestinian Economy After Oslo", in the book The New Intifada[xix] Intifada Update no. 31, human and material losses that Israel caused the Palestinians during the Intifada, from 28 September 2000 to 24 December 2001. www.miftah.org . Contradictory findings are often presented regarding Palestinian human and material losses. I use the statistics of Miftah because they are usually the most conservative ones. Miftah: "Total loss of income of Palestinian workers who worked in Israel in the past: 3.6 million dollars a day. Actual losses: the gross national product declined between September and March by 1.5 billion dollars. The decline in per capita income: 47 per cent."[xx] ibid[xxi] "The Economic Price Paid by the Palestinians as a Result of the Violence in the Territories", a background document prepared by the Operations Directorate, IDF Spokesperson and the Information and Public Relations Branch, 6 November 2000, distributed by Independent Media Review & Analysis http://www.imra.org.il/story.php3?id=5054 .[xxii] Ewen MacAskill: "Palestinians forced to swallow pride and accept handouts," Guardian, 28 June 2001 http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,513581,00.html [xxiii] Eric Silver: "Barak tries economic war to beat the Intifada: Palestinian territories facing long-term ruin," The Independent, 7 Nov. 2000 http://www.mail-archive.com/kominform@lists.eunet.fi/msg04316.html [xxiv] "The Economic Price Paid by the Palestinians as a Result of the Violence in the Territories", a background document prepared by the Operations Directorate, IDF Spokesperson and the Information and Public Relations Branch, 6 November 2000, distributed by Independent Media Review & Analysis http://www.imra.org.il/story.php3?id=5054 .[xxv] Amira Hass, "The hidden weapons factories," Haaretz 12 Dec. 2001 http://www.haaretzdaily.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=105129&contrassID=2&subContrassID=4&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y Mark MarshallToronto~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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